Freedom and Determinism in Human Action

April 25- Celebrating 40 years

On the 23rd April, in the auditorium of the school library of Escola Secundária de Casquilhos, a special session was held to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Carnation Revolution. It was oriented and organised by the Philosophy teacher Graça Carvalho and aimed at students, teachers and school employees. The session was opened by Regina Janeiro, the City Councillor for Education, and by teacher Luís Rino, the Vice-President of our School Amalgamation, who introduced the topic of the session and stressed the importance of debating it.

During the session a former school teacher, Joaquim Porfírio, gave his testimony about his activities as a student leader before April 25, poet Manuel Branco recited some poems on the theme and singer Francisco Naia sang protest songs.

This initiative was aimed to inform students about the hardships of living in a political system where freedom does not exist, as well as to make them aware that although we have been living in a democracy for the last 40 years, we cannot take freedom for granted; in fact we need to fight for it on a daily basis.

The students attending the session actively participated in it by asking questions and commenting on the various activities/speeches, which allowed them to look at the discussed issue from another angle. It also made them realise the important role they all have in the maintenance of individual and collective freedom and democracy not only in their country, but also in Europe and in the World.


Still under the heading of "Freedom and Determinism in Human Action" included in the 10th grade Philosophy Course, a few works done by the students from classes D and E, under the supervision of teacher Graça Carvalho, were displayed during the session. Students were asked to reflect on the importance of Freedom and the Construction of Values with the aim of forming active, informed and responsible citizens that can strengthen and protect the exercise of democracy in Portugal and Europe.

The pyramids of values created are the result of each student’s reflection on the values that will guide their future life.